Smoke versus Vapor

The Tobacco Industry vs the Electronic Cigarette


Carcinogen Information


Carcinogenicity

Smoke, or any partially burnt organic matter, is carcinogenic (cancer-causing). The damage a continuing smoker does to their lungs can take up to 20 years before its physical manifestation in lung cancer. Women began smoking later than men, so the rise in death rate amongst women did not appear until later. The male lung cancer death rate decreased in 1975  roughly 20 years after the fall in cigarette consumption in men. A fall in consumption in women also began in  1975 but by 1991 had not manifested in a decrease in lung cancer related mortalities amongst women.

Smoke contains several carcinogenic pyrolysis products that bind to DNA and cause genetic mutations. Particularly potent carcinogens are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are toxicated to mutagenic epoxides. The first PAH to be identified as a carcinogen in tobacco smoke was benzopyrene, which has been shown to toxicate into an epoxide that irreversibly attaches to a cell's nuclear DNA, which may either kill the cell or cause a genetic mutation. If the mutation inhibits programmed cell death, the cell can survive to become a cancer cell. Similarly, acrolein, which is abundant in tobacco smoke, also irreversibly binds to DNA, causes mutations and thus also cancer. However, it needs no activation to become carcinogenic.

The carcinogenity of tobacco smoke is not explained by nicotine per se, which is not carcinogenic or mutagenic. However, it inhibits apoptosis, therefore accelerating existing cancers. Also, NNK, a nicotine derivative converted from nicotine, can be carcinogenic. You can find more information here.

  • Group 1: the agent (mixture) is definitely carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are carcinogenic to humans.
  • Group 2A: the agent (mixture) is probably carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are probably carcinogenic to humans.
  • Group 2B: the agent (mixture) is possibly carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans.
  • Group 3: the agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.
  • Group 4: the agent (mixture) is probably not carcinogenic to humans.

To reduce cancer risk but to deliver nicotine, there are nicotine delivery products such as the electronic cigarette where the nicotine is not pyrolysed, but rather vaporized with solvent such as glycerol. However, due to the ever increasing popularity of this product, the FDA has recently taken the radical and highly controversial step to ban these products, seemingly ignorant and thus indifferent to the possibility that this product offers a viable alternative to tobacco products.

Full article  here


The following is a list of known toxins in cigarettes, a product that is "approved" by the FDA and Governments worldwide, all of which are NOT associated with the electronic cigarette products, that the FDA has "banned" for use by the consumer:


Agent Toxic Ciliotoxic Carcinogenic Co-carcinogenic
/ Promoter
Carbon Monoxide x


Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) x


Hydrogen Cyanide x x

Formaldehyde
x x
Acrolein
x

Acetaldehyde
x

Ammonia x


Hydrazine

x
Vinyl Chloride

x
Urethane

x
2-Nitropropane

x
Quinoline

x
Benzo[a]pyrene

x x
Dibenz[a,h]anthracene

x x
Benzo[b]fluoranthene

x x
Benzo[j]fluoranthene

x x
Dibenzo[a,h]pyrene

x x
Dibenzo[a,i]pyrene

x x
Dibenz[a,j]acridine

x x
Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

x x
Benzo[c]phenanthrene

x x
Benz[a]anthracene

x x
Benzo[e]pyrene

x x
Chrysene

x x
Methylchrysene

x x
Mehtylfluoranthene

x x
Dibenz[a,c]anthracene

x x
Dibenz[a,h]acridine

x x
Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole

x x
Mehtylnaphtalenes


x
1-Methylindoles


x
Dichlorostilbene


x
Catechol


x
3-Methycatechol


x
4-Methycatechol


x
4-Ethycatechol


x
4-n-Propylcatechol


x
Nitrosodimethylamine

x
Nitrosoethymethylamine

x
Nitrosodiethylamine

x
Nitrosodi-n-propylamine

x
Nitrosodi-n-butylamine

x
Nitrosopyrrolidine

x
Nitrosopiperidine

x
Nitrosomorpholine

x
N-Nitrosonornicotine

x
4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone

x
N-Nitrosoanabasine

x
N-Nitrosoanatabine

x
Aromatic Amines

x
Aromatic Nitrohydrocarbons

x
Polonium-210

x
Nickel

x
Arsenic

x
Cadmium

x


Carcinogen Comparisson

The FDA state in their "Smoke and Mirrors" release on July 22, that they discovered carcinogens in certain e cig samples such as diethylene glycol, an ingredient used in antifreeze. "However, in reading up on this I ran across the definition on Wiki and it is stated there that "diethylene glycol should not be confused with the related compound, ethylene glycol, which is the most common glycol used in coolants". They also conveniently forgot to mention that diethylene glycol is also used in toothpaste, mouthwash, cough syrup, wine and plenty of other consumer products that fill our shelves. There was also no mention of the fact that these very same chemicals are found in FDA approved nicotine replacement therapy products.

As stated on the Health Central website ... "Almost all researchers agree that nicotine is not a carcinogen and there is growing consensus that nicotine derived from medications does not promote cardiovascular disease. All of the NRT formulations are associated with slower onset and much lower nicotine levels than are found in cigarettes and of course they do not produce carbon monoxide, toxins, and carcinogens. The safety and abuse records of NRT have been excellent. The choice of NRT should be individualized based on preference, past experience, smoking dependence and habits."  In many ways, the electronic cigarette fits into the same category, in that it delivers much lower nicotine levels and also does not produce carbon monoxide, toxins or carcinogens.


Sample

Identification of possible tobacco specific impurities and DEG by GC-MS/MSB

Smoking Everywhere e-cigarettes

DEG

Cotinine

Anabasine

Myosmine

β-nicotyrine

555 High

D

D

D

D

D

Cherry High

ND

D

ND

D

D

Tobacco Original MED

ND

D

D

D

D

Menthol HIGH

ND

D

D

D

D

Tobacco Original LOW

ND

D

D

D

D

Menthol MED

ND

D

D

D

D

Apple LOW

ND

D

D

D

D

Menthol LOW

ND

D

ND

D

D

Vanilla LOW

ND

D

D

D

D

Tobacco Original NO

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

Vanilla NO

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

Cherry NO

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

Chocolate NO

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

Apple NO

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND


Njoy e-cigarettes

DEG
Cotinine
Anabasine
Myosmine
β-nicotyrine

Menthol HIGH

ND

D

D

D

D

Regular MED

ND

D

D

D

D

Menthol MED

ND

D

D

D

D

Regular LOW

ND

D

D

D

D

Control Sample Nicotrol 10 mg cartridge                     Mfgr. specification

?

(NMT 0.5%)

?

(NMT 0.5%)

(NMT 0.5%)

D= detected, , ND= not detected 

A analyte was detected but at a level less than the limit-of-quantitation. Open boxes indicate the sample was not available for testing. DEG = diethylene glycol ? indicates no testing or information not provided

B Limit of detection Cotinine 20 ppb. Anabasine 10 ppb; myosmine 69 ppb; β-nicotyrine 170 ppb present but at less than the level of the Nicotrol specification



FDA Test Results

Sample


Smoking Everywhere e-cigarettes

Sparging Apparatus followed by LC-UV analysis

Head Space GC-MS @ 60 deg C*

mcg nicotine/100mL puff

mcg cotinine/100 ml puff (LOD ~0.03)

β-nicotyrine

nicotine

555 High

31.5

0.4



Cherry High



ND

D

Tobacco Original MED

15.7

trace

ND

D

Menthol HIGH





Tobacco Original LOW





Menthol MED



ND

D

Apple LOW



ND

D

Menthol LOW

9.9

ND

ND

D

Vanilla LOW



ND

D

Tobacco Original NO



ND

ND

Vanilla NO



ND

ND

Cherry NO



ND

ND

Chocolate NO



ND

ND

Apple NO

0.35

ND

ND

ND


Njoy e-cigarettes





Menthol HIGH

43.2, 34.9, 26.8

trace

D

D

Regular MED



D

D

Menthol MED

10.6

ND

D

D

Regular LOW






Control (specs)

Nicotrol 10 mg cartridge

15.2

?

?

?

D= detected, , ND= not detected * Presence of tobacco specific impurities cotinine, nicotine-N-oxide, nornicotine, anabasine and myosmine was negative at 60 deg C. Open box indicate sample not tested.

A analyte was detected but at a level less than the limit-of-quantitation. Open boxes indicate the sample was not available for testing. DEG = diethylene glycol ? indicates no test or information not provided

B Limit of detection Cotinine 20 ppb. Anabasine 10 ppb; myosmine 69 ppb; β-nicotyrine 170 ppb � present but at less than the level of the Nicotrol specification


To the Anti-Smoking Groups, the Public Health Advocates, Health Canada and our Canadian Government who are all in favor of the border ban on the Electronic Cigarette Products ... Tobacco products have been shown to contain at least 250 carcinogens. Please take note of the list below which shows only 56 of the carcinogens in the tobacco products at significant levels while the electronic cigarettes have not been shown to contain any carcinogens at more than trace levels.


Table 1. List of Identified, Known Carcinogens in Electronic Cigarettes, Present at More than Trace Levels (defined as 1 nanogram per cigarette)

None

Table 2. List of Identified, Known Carcinogens in Tobacco Cigarettes, Present at More than Trace Levels (defined as 1 nanogram per cigarette)

Benz(a)anthracene

Benzo(b)fluoranthene

Benzo(j)fluoranthene

Benzo(k)fluoranthene

Benzo(a)pyrene

Dibenz(a,h)anthracene

Dibenzo(a,l)pyrene

Dibenzo(a,e)pyrene

Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene

Quinolineb

Dibenz(a,j)acridine

Benzo(b)furan

Furan

N-Nitrosodimethylamine

N -Nitrosoethylmethylamine

N -Nitrosodiethylamine

N -Nitroso-di-n-butylamine

N -Nitrosopyrrolidine

N -Nitrosopiperidine

N -Nitrosodiethanolamine

N -Nitrosonornicotine

4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone

2-Toluidine

2,6-Dimethylaniline

2-Naphthylamine

4-Aminobiphenyl

AaC

PhIP

Formaldehyde

Acetaldehyde

1,3-Butadiene

Isoprene

Benzene

Styrene

Acetamide

Acrylamide

Acrylonitrile

Vinyl chloride

DDT

DDE

Catechol

Caffeic acid

1,1-Dimethylhydrazine

2-Nitropropane

Nitrobenzene

Ethyl carbamate

thylene oxide

Propylene oxide

Methyleugenol

Hydrazine

Arsenic

Nickel

Chromium

Cadmium

Lead

Polonium-210